Manufacturing of Brick This Technical Note presents fundamental procedures for the manufacture of clay brick. The types of clay used, the three principal processes for forming brick and the various phases of manufacturing, from mining through storage, are discussed. Information is provided regarding brick durability, color, texture (including coatings and glazes), size variation, compressive strength and absorption.
Specifications for and Classification of Brick This Technical Note describes the predominant-consensus standard specifications for brick and the various classifications used in each. Specific requirements — including physical properties, appearance features and coring — are described. Additional requirements for each brick specification also are covered.
Fire Resistance of Brick Masonry This Technical Note presents information about the fire resistance of brick masonry assemblies in loadbearing and veneer applications. Fire resistance ratings of several brick masonry wall assemblies tested using ASTM E119 procedures are listed. For untested wall assemblies, procedures are presented for calculating a fire resistance rating.
Accommodating Expansion of Brickwork Expansion joints are used in brickwork to accommodate movement and to avoid cracking. This Technical Note describes typical movement joints used in building construction and gives guidance regarding their placement. The theory and rationale for the guidelines are presented. Examples are given showing proper placement of expansion joints to avoid cracking of brickwork and methods to improve the aesthetic impact of expansion joints. Also included is information about bond breaks, bond beams and flexible anchorage.
Brick Veneer Wood Stud Walls This Technical Note deals with the prescriptive design of anchored brick veneer over wood stud backing in new construction. The properties of the brick veneer/wood stud system are described, which lead to design considerations. Selection of materials, construction details and workmanship techniques are also included.
Adding Brick Veneer to Existing Construction This Technical Note presents information on adding anchored brick veneer and thin brick adhered veneer to existing construction. Considerations and recommendations for design, detailing, material selection and construction specific to retrofitting existing walls with brick veneer are presented. Other Technical Notes are referenced for general brick veneer construction information not specific to the retrofit of existing construction.
Brick Veneer Steel Stud Walls This Technical Note addresses the considerations and recommendations for the design, detailing, material selection and construction of brick veneer/steel stud walls. This information pertains to behavior of the veneer and steel studs, differential movement, anchors, air space, detailing, selection of materials and construction techniques.
Thin Brick Veneer This Technical Note presents design and construction information on the use of thin brick in adhered veneer systems. Methods of thin brick construction discussed include thick set, thin set, modular panels and prefabricated panels consisting of architectural precast concrete, tilt-up concrete and wood or steel stud frame panels. Properties of the finished construction and comparisons to other systems are presented.
Brick Veneer/Concrete Masonry Walls This Technical Note presents design, material and construction information for anchored brick veneer on concrete masonry backing. Description of properties, theories of structural design and proper detailing are presented. Refer to Technical Notes 28 and 28B for specific information related to drained wall assemblies with non-masonry backing.
Bonds and Patterns in Brickwork The word bond, when used in reference to masonry, may have three meanings: Structural Bond: The method by which individual masonry units are interlocked or tied together to cause the entire assembly to act as a single structural unit. Pattern Bond: The pattern formed by the masonry units and the mortar joints on the face of a wall. The pattern may result from the type of structural bond used or may be purely a decorative one unrelated to the structural bonding. Mortar Bond: The adhesion of mortar to the masonry units or to reinforcing steel.
Brick Masonry Arches The masonry arch is one of the oldest structural elements. Brick masonry arches have been used for hundreds of years. This Technical Notes is an introduction to brick masonry arches. Many of the different types of brick masonry arches are discussed and a glossary of arch terms is provided. Material selection, proper construction methods, detailing and arch construction recommendations are discussed to ensure proper structural support, durability and weather resistance of the brick masonry arch.
Maintenance of Brick Masonry Even though one of the major advantages of brick masonry construction is durability, periodic inspections and maintenance are needed to maximize the life of brickwork in structures. This Technical Note discusses the elements of suggested inspection programs and describes specific maintenance procedures, including replacement of sealant joints, grouting of mortar joint faces, repointing of mortar joints, removal of plant growth, repair of weeps, replacement of brick, installation of a dampproof course, installation of flashing in existing walls and replacement of wall ties.